RE: Def'n of Science

Pim van Meurs (
Sat, 13 Mar 1999 12:23:03 -0800

I (Neal Roys) wrote:

>. . . the conditions of Darwin's falsification scenario have been met.
>>Therefore *gradual* Darwinian macro-evolution should also be taught only
>philosophy classes along with Marxism.

You (Pim van Meurs) wrote:

> [...] it has since been shown that IC systems can "evolve" gradually.

Neal asks me: Please refer me to a source that shows that irreducibly complex systems can
evolve gradually through non-artificial selection or other mechanisms that
do not employ intelligent causal agents.

Keith Robinson showed how an IC system can "evolve" gradually.

"So, duplication plus a loss of function, plus one of two different loss-of-function mutations can convert a single step pathway into a two step cascade. The initial steps are neutral, neither advantageous nor disadvantageous. Such neutral mutations occur regularly. The final step locks in the cascade. It is potentially advantageous, because multiple levels of cascade give opportunities for both control (probably a long-term advantage) and for amplification. (One X* can activate many Y's, increasing an initial signal.)"