Re: request for help

Glenn Morton (
Tue, 14 Apr 1998 20:06:44 -0500

At 07:56 AM 4/14/98, SZYGMUNT@EXODUS.VALPO.EDU wrote:
>I would like to ask for a short summary of the
>chronology of life on earth, with approximate dates
>according to our current understanding. This
>would obviously begin something like this:
>15 billion years ago creation of the universe
>4.5 billion y. a. formation of the earth
>3.8 billion y. a. first appearance of life

I can do some of this. However, at this moment I wouldn't touch the age of
the universe because it is still in flux as near as I can tell. With the
recent evidence favoring the cosmological constant (a repulsive anti-gravity
force) the age of the universe is younger. Unfortunately since I have spent
the past 2 years looking at anthro, I haven't kept up in astronomy.
Billion years ago
age of the Universe 14 (Recer, 1998)
Origin of Solar System 4.6 (Giardini & Melton 1989)
Oldest sediments(Itsaq Gneiss Complex Greenland) 3.85 (Hayes, 1996)
Oldest geochemical evidence of life 3.8 (Mojzsis et al, 1996)
Oldest microfossil of cell 3.5 (Mojzsis et al, 1996)

Million years ago
Oldest sponge (oldest extant phylum) 580 (Li et al, 1998)
Cambrian Explosion 530 (Gould, 1994)
Oldest Cordate 530 (Monastersky, 1996)
Oldest Vascular plant Cooksonia 470 (Cal, 1996)
Oldest fish 460 (Sansom et al, 1996)
Oldest hydrothermal vent communities 420 (Little, 1997)
Oldest amphibian 363 (Carrol, 1996)
Oldest terrestrial worm ~320 (Rolfe 1980, p. 141)
Oldest terrestrial scorpion 310 (rolfe 1980, p. 146)
Oldest spider 295 (Selden, 1996)
Oldest moth 230 (Fraser et al, 1996)
Oldest mammal 180 (Carroll, 1988, p. 401)
Oldest bird Archaeopteryx 145 (Carroll, 1988, p. 338)
Oldest Placental mammal 100 (Wuethrich, 1997)
Oldest Primate 50 (Martin,1993)
Oldest Hominid Ardepithecus 4.4 (Johanson et al,1997)
Earliest dog .015 (Wayne, 1993)


Chongyang Cal, Shu Ouyang, Yi Wang, Zongjie Fang, Jiayu rong Liangyu Geng
and Xingxue Li "An Early Silurian Vascular Plant," Nature, 379, Feb. 15,
1996, p. 592

Carroo, Robert L. 1988 Vertebrate Paleontology and evolution, p. 401

Carroll, Robert L., 1996, "Revealing the Patterns of Macroevolution&quot"
Nature, 381,pp. 19-20

Nicholas C.Fraser et al, "A Triassic Lagerstatte from eastern North
America," Nature, 380, April 18, 1996, p. 617

A. A. Giardini and C. E. Melton, "A Model that Quantitiatively Explains
Geodynamics, Journal of Petroleum Geology, 12:1(Jan 1989), p. 8

Stephen J. Gould, "The Evolution of Life on the Earth," Scientific
American, Oct. 1994, p. 89

John M. Hayes, "The Earliest Memories of Life on Earth," Nature, Nov. 7,
1996, p. 21

Johanson and Blake, From Lucy to Language, 1997, p. 116

Chia-Wei Li, Jun-Yuan Chen and Tzu-En Hua,"Precambrian Sponges with Cellular
Structures," Science 279(1998):879-882

C.T.S. Little, et al, "Silurian Hydrothermal-vent Communitiy from the
Southern Urals, Russia," Nature, 385, Jan. 9, 1997, p. 146-148

Robert D. Martin, "Primate Origins: Plugging the Gaps," Nature,
363(1993):223-234, p. 232-233

R. Monastersky "Early Kin of Vertebrates found in China," Science News, 150,
Nov. 16, 1996, p.311

S. J. Mojzsis et al, "Evidence for life on Earth before 3,800 million years
ago" Nature, Nov 7, 1996, p. 55

PAUL RECER, Astronomers Find Antigravity Force 02/26/1998 17:59 EST AP Wire
(sorry but this is the best I can do for the latest on this. It includes the
newest data on the Cosmological constant.

Ivan J. Sansom, M.M. Smith and M. P. Smith, "Scales of Thelodont and
shark-like fishes from the Ordovician of Colorado," Nature, 379:628-630,
Feb. 15, 1996, p. 628

Paul A. Selden, "Fossil mesothele spiders," Nature, 379, Feb. 8, 1996, p. 498

W. D. Ian Rolfe, "Early Invertebrate Terrestrial Faunas," in A. L. Panchen,
The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates, (New York:
Academic Press, 1980), p. 141

Robert K. Wayne, "Molecular evolution of the dog family," TRENDS IN
GENETICS, 9:6,June 1993

Bernice Wuethrich, "Will Fossil From Down Under Upend Mammal Evolution?"
Science, 278(1997), p. 1401


Adam, Apes, and Anthropology: Finding the Soul of Fossil Man


Foundation, Fall and Flood