RE: Kuwait's biggest field starts to run out of oil

From: janice matchett <>
Date: Tue Nov 15 2005 - 17:31:10 EST
August 18, 2005
Cellulose ethanol
Passmore : The Ontario ethanol mandate will require that by Jan. 1, 2007,
gasoline sold across the province will contain an average of 5 per cent
ethanol. Initially, most of that ethanol will be made from corn and most of
the plants producing that ethanol will be located in Ontario.

While Iogen will not be producing ethanol by 2007, the Ontario government
has also said that it plans to go to a 10-per-cent blend by 2010. By then,
Iogen expects to be producing cellulose-based ethanol and selling it into
the Ontario market through retailers such as Shell and Petro-Canada.

Vaughan : In the United States you get ethanol made from corn in the
gasoline; in Brazil you get ethanol that's made from sugar. But Iogen uses

Passmore : That's correct. Iogen is not in the business of making ethanol
from grains such as corn. We are in the business of making ethanol from
agriculture residues such as straw or corn cobs and stalks.

By using enzymes, we turn the cellulose material in this residue into
sugars and then turn the sugars into alcohol. This alcohol (ethanol) can be
used in today's cars just like grain-based ethanol. In fact, all car
manufacturers warrant ethanol blended up to 10 per cent with gasoline.

Cellulose ethanol, as it is known, is not commercially available at this
time, but Iogen has the world's largest demonstration plant converting
wheat straw into ethanol fuel.

We have demonstrated the use of this fuel in a number of vehicle
applications, most recently by providing a cellulose ethanol blend to the
G8 leaders' shuttle limos and armoured vehicles used to transport them at
the summit at Gleneagles in early July.

Vaughan : If you ever get into commercial production what's this stuff
going to cost per litre? And what about the net energy balance? Is it true
that ethanol requires more energy that it produces?

Passmore : Our hope is to go commercial in 2007 and our parallel hope is
that commercialization takes place in Canada.

Over the past 20 years the government of Canada has, using taxpayers'
money, collaborated with Iogen to develop this technology to the stage it
is at today.

But this month the United States finally passed its long-awaited energy
bill, which has numerous provisions to encourage the commercialization of
cellulose ethanol.

So Iogen and our partners will have to have a very close look at where the
best business proposition is.

As to price, our intent is to be price-competitive with conventional
ethanol, and then eventually with pretax gasoline. Being able to compete
with gasoline is an essential component of cellulose ethanol

As to the energy balance question, it's a pity we have to keep fighting the
last battle. Cellulose ethanol converts agriculture residue like straw or
grasses into a clean transportation fuel that reduces greenhouse gas
emissions and improves the environment. As a society we have to reduce
gasoline consumption without jeopardizing people's ability to travel.
Imagine being able to accomplish that by turning surplus straw into a
low-CO2 (carbon dioxide) fuel.

Vaughan : Do you think we'll ever get to E85 (gasoline with an average of
85 per cent ethanol)?

Passmore : There are over four million flexible fuel vehicles on the road
in the United States that can run on 85 per cent ethanol blended with only
15 per cent gasoline. There are few such vehicles in Canada, but those that
do exist run on Iogen's cellulose ethanol fuel.

The government of Canada has two fleets running on Iogen cellulose E85 -
Natural Resources Canada and Agriculture Canada, and Iogen's own fleet runs
on 85 per cent cellulose ethanol.

Let me tell you, it is a very strange but positive feeling driving my
Chrysler Sebring down the highway knowing that the fuel that's powering my
car comes from straw. In Europe, car companies are expected by Brussels to
reduce CO2 emissions from the current average of 163 grams of CO2 per km
driven to 140 by

2008 and subsequently 120 grams/km by 2010 and that the only way they can
achieve that is through an integrated approach in which both vehicles and
fuels contribute to the target.

One cannot think of vehicles and fuels in silos, and load all the
responsibility for emissions reductions on car companies. That's too
expensive. One has to adopt an integrated approach. If a flex fuel sport
utility vehicle runs on cellulose E85, it achieves the same CO{-2}
emissions reductions as a hybrid electric vehicle.

Vaughan : What are the chances that you'll build a big commercial-scale
plant in the near future?

Passmore : We want to get the first shovel in the ground on the world's
first full-sized cellulose ethanol facility in the spring of 2007. There
are still some challenges to overcome, not the least of which is that
commercialization of new technology requires some risk sharing by governments.

Our partners, Shell and Petro-Canada, have indicated they are willing to
participate in this project. We now need to see whether and how governments
are willing to step up to the commercialization hurdle. If we are serious
about reducing greenhouse gases, we have to commercialize new technologies
such as cellulose ethanol. ...." ~

Scroll down to the reader comments section here:
B 100:
Biodiesel is far more efficient than ethanol (BioD is 3.2 to 1, ethanol is
1.2 to 1 energy ratio). Biodiesel can be made from leftover oil from food
crops (soybean or canola oil for example), can use whatever LOCAL oil crop
is available (jatropha in India), or can be processed from waste oils and
fats. Research continues on high oil yield algaes, and mustard seed whose
meal can be used for a natural fertilizer. With conservation, high
efficiency diesel engines, and biodiesel as fuel, we can go a long way!"
[5844] Peter W:

Hi B100, I believe the industry is now claiming 1.34 for corn ethanol now
but your right biodiesel is 3.2. I imagine cellulose ethanol will have a
much higher energy ratio. Have you seen a figure on this? Another
interesting statistic would be the total cost per gallon of ethanol or
biodiesel if you incorporate farm subsidies. "
03/Jan/2005 [5845] [snip]

~ Janice

At 04:56 PM 11/15/2005, Glenn Morton wrote:
>Email is so bad in this apartment. third try to send this.
>I have this in my database from a 2001 source. 1 acre produces 328
>gallons of ethanol. But one must take into account transportation costs
>before figuring out how much of this will fuel the autos. Gas has energy
>content of 12000 kcal/liter while ethanol has 5100 kcal/liter. So, we
>will need more ethanol than gasoline. Today the US uses 9 million barrels
>of ethanol (something like 350 million gallons). I won't calculate the
>acreage required cause I have spent way too much time on this one email
>but the acreage would be tremendous.
>For those who question this topic, I would say this. Since the ASA invited
>me to give a talk at their Aug conference on this issue, it seems to me
>that we should be able to discuss things on this list which were found
>suitable for the convention.
>Tjalle T Vandergraaf <> wrote:
><?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />
>Biodiesel and ethanol are viable alternatives as long as the energy
>balance is positive but I wonder how many acres we need to plant with corn
>etc. to offset the decrease in fossil fuel harvesting. Hopefully,
>somebody has an answer. But, what with the vagaries of farming (Canadian
>prairie farmers have had a rough couple of years), I wonder how secure a
>biofuel supply would be.
Received on Tue Nov 15 17:33:49 2005

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