RE: New book on Hitler and evolution

From: Alexanian, Moorad <>
Date: Tue May 04 2004 - 11:42:38 EDT

Richard, thanks for your reply. I was just wondering if there is an
easy way to examine the impact of Darwinism on people that expound race
superiority. Does Darwinism form the real basis of their racial behavior
or do they use it to justify their racial theories. It seems to me that
to use evolutionary theory to base one's view of races would require
experimental knowledge of the human evolutionary tree and seeing where
each race falls in that scheme of things. However, such knowledge does
not exist, or, does it? I recall reading that in Germany Armenians had
to research and prove to the Nazi government that Armenians are Aryans
and not Semitic people. I do recall reading in Dadrian's book on the
Armenian Genocide that many of the generals that served in WWI and were
fully acquainted with the Armenian Genocide were also part of the
military during WWII. I would appreciate an answer to my query. I will
certainly ask our library to order your book.



-----Original Message-----
From: Richard Weikart []
Sent: Monday, May 03, 2004 12:38 PM
To: Alexanian, Moorad; 'George Murphy'; 'Ted Davis';
Subject: RE: New book on Hitler and evolution

Moorad and others:

I am well aware of the literature on the Armenian genocide, and in fact,
teaching a seminar on genocide in the fall, in which we will discuss the
Armenian genocide. In the course of my research I read part of
book, _German Responsibility in the Armenian Genocide: A Review of the
Historical Evidence of German Complicity_, as well as other material on
Armenian genocide. However, for two reasons, I didn't include anything
about the Armenian genocide in my book.

1) It is outside to scope of my subject. My book examines the impact of
Darwinism on ethical and moral thought in late nineteenth and early
twentieth-century Germany. I am not claiming to provide a full
for the Holocaust, and thus many issues related to the Holocaust are
undiscussed. In my research I looked for evidence of the impact of
Darwinism or social Darwinism on the Armenian genocide, and I could find
evidence for it. If I had, you can be sure I would have jumped on it.
there any evidence that Darwinian thinking influenced the Turks who
perpetrated the genocide (or the Germans who assisted them)?

2) There is no evidence that the Armenian genocide provided motivation
Hitler's genocide. The quotation that Moorad adduces was pretty
an attempt to overcome the qualms of his army officers. It was not a
statement of Hitler's reasons for killing people. In my book, I show
conclusively that Darwinism influenced Hitler's ideology. This is not a
radically new point--many scholars have mentioned it. What is new is
that I
explain the background to it, analyze it, and argue that Hitler had a
coherent--albeit pernicious--ethic based on Darwinian ideology.
counterfactually, I would argue that even if the Armenian genocide had
occurred, Hitler still would have murdered Jews.

I should perhaps also note that my book is not predominately about
Only one chapter is devoted to him. Most of the book is on the impact
Darwinism on ethical and moral thought, especially on the
sanctity-of-life ethic, in Germany in the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries.

Best regards,

Richard Weikart
Department of History
California State Univ., Stanislaus
Turlock, CA 95382
Author, From Darwin to Hitler: Evolutionary Ethics, Eugenics, and Racism
Germany (2004)
office phone: 209-667-3522

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Alexanian, Moorad []
> Sent: Sunday, May 02, 2004 10:42 AM
> To: George Murphy; Ted Davis;;
> Subject: RE: New book on Hitler and evolution
> There are two excellent new references regarding the Armenian
First and
> foremost by the genocide scholar Vahakn N. Dadrian, "The History of
> Genocide: Ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the
Caucasus,"Berghahn Books,
> 1995, ISBN 1-57181-016-1 and "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian
> America's Response," Peter Balakian, HarperCollins Publishers, 2003,
> 0.
> On page 403 Dadrian discusses Hitler's much debated key statement on
annihilation of
> the Armenians and Genghis Khan as a role model. Dadrian writes, "Who
all is today
> speaking of the destruction of the Armenians" (Wer redet heute noch
der Vernichtung
> der Armenier). The document was for the first time transmitted to
diplomats in
> Berlin in August 1939 by Louis Lochner. For more than two decades,
was chief of
> the Berlin Bureau of The Associate Press and for many years, he was
president of the
> Foreign Press Association there. Sir Neville Henderson, British
at Berlin,
> transmitted the document to London on August 25, 1939. The document
purports to be the
> summary of one or two speeches Hitler delivered to the Chief
> Commanding Generals at Obersalzberg, August 22, 1939, in preparation
the impending
> invasion of Poland. In essence, Hitler in that speech is admonishing
high ranking
> military officers to be brutal and merciless for a quick victory."
[Document on British
> Foreign Policy. 1919-1939. E.L. Woodward, R. Butler and A. Orde, eds.
Third Series. Vol.
> VII, 1939 (London, 1954). Doc. No 314, enclosure. Pp. 258-260.]
> On page164 discusses the chief propagandist of the CUP (Committee of
> Progress, the Young Turks) Ziya Gokalp. Balakian writes, "Gokalp's
pan-Turkism was
> bound up in grandiose romantic nationalism and a "mystical vision of
and race," and
> was influenced by the German nationalism of Herder and Wagner, who
also key
> influences on Nazi Aryan ideology. Gokalp believed that for Turkey to
revitalize itself, it
> had to reclaim a golden are, which he defined as a pre-Islamic era of
Turkic warriors such
> as Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. It is ironic that Hitler also extolled
Genghis Khan in his
> speech about the future of German world domination and his immediate
to invade
> Poland. Speaking to his elite generals eight days before invading
in 1939, Hitler
> praised the virtues of power and brutality, referring to how easy it
been to dispense of
> defenseless people like the Armenians. "Genghis Khan led millions of
and children
> to slaughter-with premeditation and a happy heart. History sees him
as the bounder
> of a state. It's a matter of indifference to me what a weak western
European civilization will
> say about me." And then the fuhrer asked rhetorically: "Who today,
all, speaks of the
> annihilation of the Armenians." [Louis P. Lochner, What About Germany?
(New York:
> Dodd, Mead & Co., 1942), 2.]
> I do not know if Richard Weikart in his book inquired on the
shown above
> regarding the motivation of Hitler in carrying on the Final Solution
the Jews. It seems
> that Weikart wants to make the link between Darwin and Hitler and does
invoke the
> Armenian Genocide and the rationale given by the Turks for it nor the
connection with
> Germany.
> Moorad
Received on Tue May 4 11:43:26 2004

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