Kettles Reference

From: Bill Payne (
Date: Sun Aug 25 2002 - 23:24:19 EDT

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    On Thu, 15 Aug 2002 13:43:13 -0500 James Mahaffy <>

    > Too broad a statement. I brought back a big stump from a coal
    > the Black Oak coal) near Pella. It was sitting right on top of the
    > seam. There was a second one (obviously sigillaria) that also appeared
    > to be sitting on the top of the coal and extending perhaps 20 feet up
    > into the siltstone. I also believe both Bill DiMichele and Aureal
    > describe areas of coal seams where there are numerous upright casts
    > right at the top of the coal.
    > Remember in underground mines you would never see them.

    Hi James,

    You really need to spend more time in the literature before you make such
    a statement. JUST KIDDING - talk about the pot calling the kettle
    black..... :-)

    I came across a description of "kettles" today. From the International
    Journal of Coal Geology 31 (1996), "The Westphalian D fossil
    lepidodendrid forest at Table Head, Sydney Basin, Nova Scotia:
    Sedimentology, paleoecology and floral response to changing edaphic
    conditions", by Calder, Gibling, Eble, Scott and MacNeil; p 304:

            "For roof exposures in underground coal mines, however, there is little
    choice but to measure trunk diameter at the coal-roof interface
    (DiMichele and DeMaris, 1987), unless the clastic filling ("kettle
    bottom") has fallen out (DiMichele et al., this volume).


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