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bivalve wrote:

I am out of the country for a meeting and so

infrequently checking mail, but thought it might

be of interest to note that various animals

could be considered tripodal in some fashion.

Apart from the obvious category of aberrant

forms such as injured quadrupeds or partially

separated twins, there are at least three general

types. Many parrots use the beak as a third limb

for climbing in trees. Conversely, some pinnipeds

(especially true seals) have very limited independent

motion of the hind limbs, so that they function as

one. Finally, a wide range of organisms, such as

kangaroos, ground sloths, tripod fish, and therazinasaurs,

use the tail as a third source of support, along with two

hind limbs or elongate fins, while they are stationary.

*>
*

*> Dr. David Campbell
*

*> "Old Seashells"
*

[Hammond]

There are no "tripedal" animals. In the first place, a

"tail" is not a "leg".

Pinnipeds are actually 4-legged animals as the skeleton of

a Walrus or a seal clearly shows:

Walrus:

http://www.aesd.gcisa.net/nlg.school/walfulsz.html

Even Whales have a vestigial pelvis and even vestigial rear

legs:

http://www.aesd.gcisa.net/nlg.school/walfulsz.html

"It has been known since Darwin's time that

whales occasionally show evidence of vestigial

limbs and pelvic bones. This is most obvious

in whale embryos, but adult whales have actually

been found with protruding limb rudiments."

Fish of course generally appear with 2 or more pairs

of "paired fins" and therefore are at a minimum, "4-legged".

All fish are bilateral, and therefore legs would naturally

appear in bilateral pairs. As we know, amphibians (4-legged)

evolved from 4-finned fish, and quadrupeds evolved from

(4-legged) amphibians.

So the "pinniped canard" is useless. Neither is a Kangaroo

or a bird or a man a "two legged" animal, they are all simply

4-legged animals balancing on their hind legs. Same for Tyrannosaurus

Rex or the rest of the "bipedal" dinosaurs and animals. They

are all 4-legged animals balancing on heir hind legs.

Arguing factoids with amateurs (present company excepted of

course) is, as we all know simply pandering to the pedantry in

the first place. Fact is, they are not scientifically competent

to discuss science in depth, or God.

Even a PhD in physics is not really much help.. the study of God

only begins at the PhD level and extends far far beyond that. As an

example, many PhD's in Physics are familiar with General Relativity,

but few of them can tell you why real space is Riemannian (i.e. has

a quadratic metric) in the first place, and of course, this is one

of the most fundamental questions underlying general relativity.

In fact, it is the answer to "why there are no 3-legged animals".

As an example of what you have to know in order to understand a

simple fact such as why their are "no 3-legged animals" is the fact

that:

A SOLID OBJECT CANNOT BE ROTATED

IN NON-RIEMANNIAN SPACE

Now, for the amateur, let me point out that the terms:

Euclidean Space

Cartesian Space

Pythagorean Space

Riemannian Space

ALL MEAN THE SAME THING vis a vis one fundamental fact:

They all refer to spaces that

have a "homogeneous quadratic

metric".

The simplest example of a "homogenous quadratic metric" is simple

Euclidean space:

dR2 = dX2 + dY2 +dZ2 (Pythagorean theorem)

All 4 of the above spaces are referred to as "Riemannian" for

this reason. Euclidean space is merely a special case of

a Riemannian space that has zero curvature (flat space).

However, there are non-riemannian spaces. For instance if

you define the line element to be:

dR = [dXdYdZ]^1/3

this is a NON-RIMANNIAN METRIC (it is not a quadratic form).

Interestingly, HELMHOLTZ apparently was the first to show that:

YOU CANNOT ROTATE A SOLID BODY

IN A NON-RIEMANNIAN SPACE:

See: http://www.bun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~suchii/R&H.html

This was later proven rigorously by Weyl and others.

For instance Weyl in _Space, Time & Matter_ (1920)

discusses in the closing pages of Ch.II, Riemann's

famous remark that:

The metric of real space "might be a homogenous

function of the 4th order in the differentials,

or even a function built up in some other way,

and that it might not even depend rationally on

the differentials."

(Weyl, quoting Riemann, idid ChII, pp 138-148)

Weyl goes on to demonstrate that the "rotation group" requires that

the metric be a QUADRATIC form, and has proven this for 3 dimensions

(the case under discussion here).

Finally of course, for the benefit of eager PhD's in physics lest

they make the same amateur error Dr. George Murphy has recently made,

"curvature" is not the issue here, the existence of a "quadratic

metric" is the issue. any space that DOES NOT HAVE a quadratic

metric is non-Riemannian, and of interest, is the fact that:

YOU CANNOT ROTATE A SOLID BODY

IN A NON-RIEMANNIAN SPACE

This of course, tells us WHY "Real Space" has to be Riemannian.

Incidentally,

also included in the definition of Riemannian, is the fact that the metric,

even when there is curvature present, MUST reduce to a pure Euclidean

quadratic for small distances. This is a fundamental theorem in general

Relativity where it is known as the "Equivalence Principle".

At any rate, getting back to the matter of "why there are no 3-legged

animals", what we see is the following. First, real space is Riemannian,

which means that it is Euclidean to first order. Real (3D) space, locally

obeys the Pythagorean theorem (and we have just finished explaining WHY):

dR2 = dX2 + dY2 +dZ2 (Pythagorean Theorem)

Now, it is well known that several simple "Coordinate systems" can

be constructed in such a space:

Cartesian coordinates

Cylindrical coordinates

Spherical coordinates

and all of them obey the "quadratic metrical law" of REAL SPACE.

Now here comes the interesting part. A MACHINE it turns out

(in it's simplest form) is nothing more than a "mechanical

coordinate system". Which means that all "simple machines" that

we see are generally one of the above 3 mechanical structures.

A "jib boom" is a "spherical coordinate machine". A set of gears

is a "polar coordinate machine" (special case of cylindrical).

And MOST COMMON OF ALL is the "Cartesian machine", a t.v., typewriter,

airplane, even a fish, are all "cartesian machines":

http://people.ne.mediaone.net/ghammond/FIG1.jpg

Obviously, the CARTESIAN MACHINE is the simplest kind of machine

to mechanically construct. It is for this reason that the BODY PLAN

of all living things, both plants and animals* is CARTESIAN.

Life forms, that is Plants and Animals are "Cartesian Machines",

and this notably includes HUMAN BEINGS.

Because of this, all of the higher Animal Phyla are BILATERAL.

in fact only the two lowest animal Phyla (jellyfish) which are

after all "legless" animals to begin with, are not Bilateral (they

are radial). Any animal with "legs" is Cartesian and therefore

Bilateral, and the "legs" will appear in Bilateral pairs. Therefore,

there "is no such thing as a 3-legged animal". The "Cartesian

Body Plan" cannot produce such a thing, and furthermore, it defies

the "quadratic geometry" of the space which produced the "Cartesian

Animal' in the first place. In a bilateral or "cartesian" machine

standing in a plane, 4 is the minimum number of legs that will

produce stability. 3 is not possible because bilateral symmetry

(cartesian symmetry) is imposed.

Now, beyond all this, what we see is that the "geometric properties

of space itself" are the CAUSAL FORCE that determines the geometrical

shape of the human body. Because of this, it turns out that the

"geometrical

shape of the brain" is also determined and is found to be "3-axis

Cartesian" in SHAPE (notice I said SHAPE, not volume). The Brain actually

has 3-Axes of mechanical symmetry, just like the Body.

Ultimately, this leads to a 3-Axis Cartesian structure in Psychometry

(eigenvector space). And therefore, we see that the whole mathematical

geometry of PSYCHOLOGY is caused by the mathematical geometry of

REAL SPACE itself.

Finally, in one of the most stunning developments of modern science,

Hammond (1994, 1997) has discovered that because REAL SPACE causes the

structure of PSYCHOLOGY SPACE, that there is a "curvature" in psychometry

space which is caused by the "curvature" of REAL SPACE. And to sum it

all up, since this curvature in psychometry Space is easily and IMMEDIATELY

identified as "God", we see that "Gravity is the cause of God". IOW, the

scientific proof of God has been discovered.

Now as you can see, God is not about to be readily understood by a

layman. A layman cannot even figure out why there are no "3-legged"

animals!

if Dr. George Murphy is any example, an run of the mill PhD in Physics

can not even understand it.

Yet, the message remains, for any one who is actually "seriously

interested"

in whether there is a god or not; that: "The scientific proof that God

actually really exists" has in fact been discovered.

*Pedantry alert, this statement refers to "multicellular"

plants and animals, not bacteria, virus' etc.

-- Be sure to visit my website below, and please ask your news service provider to add alt.sci.proof-of-god ----------------------------------------------------------- George Hammond, M.S. Physics Email: ghammond@mediaone.net Website: http://people.ne.mediaone.net/ghammond/index.html -----------------------------------------------------------

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