In these interesting discussions of the "giftedness" of creation and whether
or not God "intervenes" and, if so, whether those actions are "planned" in
advance, I hear the same ground being gone over, the same ground that Newton
and Leibniz fought over in the early 18th century. I can't quickly
summarize here what they argued about -- "concluded" would not be accurate,
any more than it would apply to this discussion now -- but I can point
interested parties to H.G. Alexander, ed. The Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence
(Manchester 1956). The entire volume is highly relevant. The only "new"
thing I see here is the very helpful terminology provided by Howard Van
Till, who refers to what Leibniz thought of as the perfection of God's plan
for creation as "giftedness."