A big topic, about which just a few comments now.
1) The word of God is to be understood first as something alive
& active which does things, & only secondarily as a source of
information. Cf. Gen.1, Is.55:10-11, Jer.23:29 &c.
2) Much biblical prophecy isn't predictive. Of that which is,
a great deal is short or intermediate term - i.e., a few years or
decade. Some of these are things which a perceptive _& inspired_
social/political/economic observer might foresee - e.g. Amos on what
would happen to the northen kingdom.
Historical-critical scholars sometimes argue that the 3 passion
predictions by Jesus in the synoptic gospels must have been composed
after the resurrection. Details may be the work of the gospel
writers/editors, but there would really be nothing amazing about Jesus,
considered merely as a good student of history & social conditions,
realizing that the course he was set on would end up getting him killed.
Such predictions need not follow the model of Newtonian physics
and Laplacian determinism, but may be a more holistic & subconscious
matter. (I think Jung had some ideas along this line.)
3) The laws of physics do not rule out "backwards in time"
signalling. In classical electrodynamics, e.g., the "advanced
potentials" which would convey such signals are usually just omitted,
but there is no compelling reason to do so. Tachyons (if they exist) &
closed timelike worldlines in some general relativity space-times are
more exotic possibilities.
4) With all that, I again emphasize that I don't suggest these
notions as _alternatives_ to divine inspiration of prediction, but as
_means_ for it.